Child Soldiers and Related Security Threats
(Copenhagen School Theory)

This essay discusses the securitization of child soldiers and the policy outcomes the process has generated. The Copenhagen school is used as a framework for the essay as the school uses a multi-sectoral approach to security and defines how a specific matter becomes securitized. This essay discusses the threats child soldiers pose to traditional state security and then goes further to include the threats to societal, economic and environmental security. The essay also further highlights the efforts taken to end the impunity for those involved in the recruitment of child soldiers. Click to View full paper

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Peacekeeping in Africa: The Vital Role of a Regional Hegemon

This paper examines the role of Hegemons in regional peacekeeping. The aim is to answer whether regional peacekeeping efforts can be successful without the assertive influence from preponderant states. Two cases have been examined, firstly the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) intervention in Liberia in 1990 to assess how the hegemonic behaviour of a single state, Nigeria, influenced decisions taken by the regional body. Secondly, the African Union (AU) led intervention in Darfur in 2004 to assess how the regional body with little or no hegemonic influence from powerful states handled the crisis. There has been little attempt to critically assess the influence and role of regional hegemons in peacekeeping and this makes the paper not only challenging but also very captivating and relevant. Click to View full paper

The Role of Regional Organizations in the Maintenance of International Peace and Security

The potential role of regional organizations to help in the maintenance of international peace and security was recognized at the founding of the UN and is articulated in Chapter VIII of the UN Charter. The main objective of this essay is to critically analyze this role and highlight the advantages and underlying problems regional organizations may face. The essay begins by examining the UN Charter and discussing the role of the UN and international organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security. The practical experience of regional organizations' in conflicts management is then examined before discussing the advantages and underlying issues involved. Click to View full paper

An Evolution of the Success of the ESDP Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Operation 'Artemis')

The European Union (EU) military capacity was put to the test through Operation Artemis which involved deploying armed troops to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The operation was launched on 12 June 2003 and reached its full strength of 1,400 troops on 6 July. As the first EU out-of-area military deployment under a UN mandate and also the first fully autonomous military operation of the EU, this essay will evaluate its success. The EU as a normative power has a tradition and history of being an actor that employs soft-power tools such as diplomacy and the building of interdependence rather than confrontation. This is different, however, from threatening the use of force or using hard military power as in the case of Operation Artemis. This essay will therefore attempt to evaluate the success of Operations Artemis by first assessing whether the norms of legitimately and justification were duly respected and taken into account before evaluating the success of the EU mission in the DRC, its impact on future EU-UN relations and criticism raised. Click to View full paper

The Right to Self-Determination under International Law

This essay argues that self-determination, in the post colonial era, is best understood as a right to have representation which may not amount to a right to secede but it does amount to a right to be taken seriously and this will be highlighted in the essay. There are two important questions that inevitably arise with regards to the right to self-determination as highlighted. The first surrounds the meaning of the right to self-determination and does self-determination encompass a right to secession? And if does not encompass the right to secession, then the second question is what exactly does the right to self-determination entail? This essay will attempt to answer the questions by initially discussing the meaning of self-determination under international law then discussing the concept of self-determination beyond the concept of colonial context and whether it encompasses Click to View full paper

The Evolution of Peacekeeping in West Africa:
The ECOMOG Ordeal

ECOMOG's intervention in Liberia established several important precedents firstly, it became the first subregional military force in the third world since the end of the Cold War and secondly the first subregional peacekeeping force with whom the UN agreed to work as a secondary partner. This article examines the evolution of ECOMOG and in particular its initial six year engagement in the Liberian crisis, and argues that an inadequate peacekeeping force may prolong a war and have the potential to weaken regional stability, however, in the case of ECOMOG the sheer will and staying power from member states helped to mould the frame work for the most advanced subregional collective security mechanism in Africa today. The essay begins with a focus on the role of regional organisations in the maintenance of international peace and security and the evolution of peacekeeping in the UN system to understand the role of ECOWAS as part of the broader UN collective security mechanism. The conditions that necessitated birth of ECOMOG and its evolution within a divided subregion are then carefully studied and analysed before reviewing the subregional challenges to help understand how the ad hoc improvised force evolved into an effective and enhanced collective security mechanism for West Africa. Click to View full paper

The Evolution of Peacekeeping in the United Nations System and the Relationship of Peacekeeping and Collective Security

International collective security was one the primary functions of the United Nations at its founding in 1945. The objective was to ensure the security of states and prohibit the use of force as outlined in Article 2 (4) of the Charter of the UN. However, realism as the bedrock for politics amongst the Permanent Five surfaced very quickly and geopolitical strategic interests took centre stage and started to impede the effectiveness of the Security Council from the onset. Peacekeeping then emerged as the principal tool through which the UN attempted to fulfil its primary goal of maintaining peace and security. Rather interestingly, peacekeeping does not appear in UN's charter as it was a creative invention designed, post 1945, as a substitute for collective security which was being impeded by realist ideology sonething not envisaged at its founding. Peacekeeping has evolved over the last fifty years through the implementation of various recommendations, from within the UN, to include the all important Brahimi report and constructive criticism from academia. The process of evolution has created a more robust form of peacekeeping commonly referred to as third generation peacekeeping which is distinguished from the more circumscribed nature of the traditional peacekeeping known during the Cold War for it enforcement mandate and multidimensional approach to attaining international peace and security. This essay will discuss the evolution of peacekeeping and its relationship to the UN’s core function of collective security. Click to View full paper

Article 2(4) of The Charter of The United Nations Is ‘Dead’

The only two exceptions to the use of force included in the Charter are the inherent right to self defence in Article 51 and the powers vested on the UNSC under Article 42. Unfortunately with various conflicts all over the world and new emerging threats the prohibition of the threat or use of force contained in Article 2 (4) of the UN Charter is currently the subject of fundamental disagreement. Legal scholars disagree on a number of issues to include, whether or not Article 51 reflects existing customary international law, the legality of violating a states sovereignty to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms and the right to launch pre-emptive strikes to protect ones nation against threats and acts of terrorism or WMD. The aim of this essay is therefore to ascertain whether Article 2 (4) could be considered ‘dead’. This essay starts by studying the Charter of the UN as the legal framework for international law and its enforcement mechanism. The essay then goes further to assess the legality surrounding the new emerging norm of humanitarian intervention, the hegemonic influence of the US, and the impact of US National Security Strategy 2002 on the Charter before finally drawing conclusions. Click to View full paper

The Privatization of Conflict and Its Implications on
International Peace and Security

Private Armies also known as Private Security Companies are a feature of contemporary warfare representing the latest addition to the battlefield. They are specialised in providing Combat and Operational Support, Military Advise and Training, Arms Procurement, Logistics Support, Intelligence Gathering, Security and Crime Prevention Services. Literature on this topic does not put an end to what they can supply or offer as the law remains ambiguous in their favour. This is exploited by Countries in need of military equipment and expertise, as they provide a cost effective and very quick way to procure military equipment and specialised services circumventing the arduous and very restrictive State Bureaucracy otherwise involved. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the privatization of Conflict and its implications on international peace and security and ascertain whether the proliferation of private armies is a threat to international security. I intend to be very pragmatic and to concentrate mainly on private armies who provide combat and operational support. The essay examines security companies that emerged following the end of the Cold War and discusses the services they provide. Reasons for their recent high proliferation and high demand is also discussed . The essay then goes further to discuss the global concerns followed by the Laws governing Private Armies before finally considering whether their proliferation poses a threat to International Security. Click to View full paper

The Strengths and Weaknesses of Zartman's
Concept of Ripeness

The aim of this essay is to discuss the strengths and weakness of Zartman's concept of 'ripeness'. I will adopt a case study approach discussing the strengths and weakness of the concept as applied to the process that led to the signing of the General Peace Agreement in 1992 and ended the 16 year civil war in Mozambique and the tri-partite agreement that led to a referendum in 1999 for East Timor thereby ending 24 years of war. I will discuss the perception of a MHS, the associated influence of an impending, past or recently avoided catastrophe, the role of valid spokespersons, a mediator and the need to formulate a way out in each case. Click to View full paper